CONTENTS

Contents
Introduction	2
Why should monitoring bodies look at this issue?	

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Concepts	5
1.	 Gender and gender mainstreaming	

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2.	 Discrimination and violence against women	

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Risk factors and measures to reduce risk	

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1.	 Certain contexts which heighten risk	
a.	 Societal context	
b.	 Legislative context	

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2.	 Certain times that heighten risk	
a.	 Police custody and pre-trial detention	
b.	Transit	

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3.	 Certain policies and practices that heighten risk or cause physical or mental suffering	
a.	 Inadequate safeguards and assessments on admission	
b.	 The nature and scope of medical examinations	
c.	 Not separating male and female prisoners	
d.	 Supervision by male staff/mixed gender staffing	
e.	 Searching policies and practices	
f.	 Solitary confinement/disciplinary segregation	
g.	 The inappropriate and unjustified use of restraints	
h.	 Inadequate provision for gender specific hygiene, sexual and reproductive healthcare	
i.	 Inadequate provision for family contact	
j.	 Inappropriate decisions to separate dependent children from their mothers in prison	
k.	 Detention for protection	

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4.	 Certain categories of women who are at heightened risk	
a. Girls	
b. Victims of human trafficking and sex workers	
c. Women with mental healthcare needs	
d. Other groups that are at heightened risk	

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What qualities do monitoring bodies need to engage in this issue?	

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Recommended further reading	

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Penal Reform International | Women in Detention: a guide to gender-sensitive monitoring	

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Select target paragraph3