United Nations

International Covenant on
Civil and Political Rights

Distr.: General
19 March 2021
Original: English

Human Rights Committee

Views adopted by the Committee under article 5 (4) of the
Optional Protocol, concerning communication
No. 2818/2016**, ***, ****
Communication submitted by:

X (not represented by counsel)

Alleged victim:

The author

State party:


Date of communication:

24 February 2016 (initial submission)

Document reference:

Decision taken pursuant to rule 92 of the
Committee’s rules of procedure, transmitted to the
State party on 6 October 2016 (not issued in
document form)

Date of adoption of Views:

22 October 2020

Subject matter:

Prosecution, conviction and imprisonment of the
author for trafficking in persons

Procedural issues:

admissibility – exhaustion of domestic remedies;
admissibility – ratione materiae; admissibility –
same matter

Substantive issues:

Arbitrary arrest/detention; defence – adequate
time and facilities; discrimination; discrimination
on the ground of nationality; fair trial; human
dignity; presumption of innocence; right to appeal

Articles of the Covenant:

2, 7, 9, 10, 14 and 26

Articles of the Optional Protocol:

2, 3 and 5 (2) (a)–(b)

The author of the complaint is X, a national of Lithuania born in Lithuania in 1986.
He claims that the State party has violated his rights under articles 2, 7, 9, 10, 14 and 26 of
the Covenant when it detained, convicted and imprisoned him for human trafficking. The

* Reissued for technical reasons on 6 August 2021.
** Adopted by the Committee at its 130th session (12 October–6 November 2020).
*** The following members of the Committee participated in the examination of the communication:
Yadh Ben Achour, Arif Bulkan, Ahmed Amin Fathalla, Christof Heyns, Duncan Laki Muhumuza,
David Moore, Photini Pazartzis, Hernán Quezada Cabrera, Vasilka Sancin, José Manuel Santos Pais,
Yuval Shany, Hélène Tigroudja, Andreas Zimmermann and Gentian Zyberi.
**** An individual opinion by Committee member José Manuel Santos Pais (partially dissenting) is
annexed to the present Views.



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