The Omega Research Foundation is an independent UK-based research organisation. We are dedicated to providing rigorous, objective, evidence-based research on the manufacture, trade in, and use of, military, security and police (MSP) technologies. This report has been produced by the Omega Research Foundation (Omega) as part of a European Commission funded project into policing technologies and human rights, under the European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR). Aspects of research for this report have been funded in part by the Joseph Rowntree Charitable Trust and the EIDHR. EIDHR donor contribution does not indicate endorsement by the EU or any EU Member State of the paper’s findings or recommendations, which are solely those of the Omega Research Foundation. Originally published by the Omega Research Foundation, January 2018, revised June 2018. Cover image: Photograph of weighted leg irons displayed at China Garments Co. Ltd stall, Milipol 2015, Paris, France, November 2015 © Robin Ballantyne/Omega This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit Please inform Omega of attributions and attribute as follows: Omega Research Foundation, Manufacture, trade and use of ‘tools of torture’ in the Council of Europe, 2018, available at 2

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