01200820
E350/8

Table of Contents
1.

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................ 2

2.

SUBMISSIONS ............................................................................................................................................ 3
2.1.
2.2.

2.3.

2.4.
3.

THECa-PROSECUTORS' SUBMISSIONS .................................................................................................. 3
THE LEAD CO-LAWYERS' SUBMISSIONS ............................................................................................... 4
THE NUON CHEA DEFENCE'S SUBMISSIONS ........................................................................................ 5
THE KHIEU SAMPHAN DEFENCE'S SUBMISSIONS ................................................................................. 6

BACKGROUND .......................................................................................................................................... 7

3.1.
3.2.

OCIJ AND PTC DECISIONS ON TORTURE-TAINTED EVIDENCE .............................................................. 7
ECCC TRIAL CHAMBER DECISIONS ON TORTURE IN CASE 001 AND CASE 002/01... ............................. 8

4.

APPLICABLE LAW.................................................................................................................................. 10

5.

FINDINGS .................................................................................................................................................. 12
5.1.

PRELIMINARY ISSUES .......................................................................................................................... 12

5.2.
STANDARD AND BURDEN OF PROOF .................................................................................................... 13
5.2.1. Standard of Proof .......................................................................................................................... 14
5.2.2. Burden of Proof............................................................................................................................. 14
5.2.3. Standard and Burden on RebuttaL ............................................................................................... 15
5.2.4. Final Assessment of Evidence of Torture ....................................................................................... 16
5.3 .

FAIR TRIAL CONSIDERATIONS ............................................................................................................. 16

5.3.1. Presumption ofInnocence .............................................................................................................. 16
5.3.2. Right to Present Exculpatory Evidence.......................................................................................... 17
5.4.
ApPLICATION AND BREADTH OF THE EXCLUSIONARY RULE ............................................................... 19
5.4.1. Evidence Obtained through Coercion or Ill-treatment ...................................................... ............ 20
5.4.2. Derivative Evidence ....................................................................................................................... 25
5.5.

5.5.1.
5.5.2.
5.5.3.

THE EXCEPTION TO THE EXCLUSIONARY RULE CONTAINED IN ARTICLE 15 ....................................... 27

Evidence in Case 002102 for which there exists a real risk that it was obtained under torture ..... 30
Use of Torture-Tainted Evidence in Case 002102 .......................................................................... 31
Future Application of these principles ........................................................................................... 33

1. INTRODUCTION
1.

The Trial Chamber is seised of requests by the parties made orally and in writing to

clarify the permissible uses of evidence that may have been obtained through the use of
torture. Though recognising its applicability to these proceedings, the parties contest the
proper interpretation of Article 15 of the 1984 Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel,
Inhumane or Degrading Treatment or Punishment ("CAT"), also known as "the exclusionary
rule," which provides: "Each State Party shall ensure that any statement which is established
to have been made as a result of torture shall not be invoked as evidence in any proceedings,
except against a person accused of torture as evidence that the statement was made."
2.

In the Case 002/01 appeal proceedings, the Supreme Court Chamber ruled on objections

to the use of several documents from the S-21 security centre proposed by parties for the
questioning of witnesses. On 1 July 2015, the Supreme Court Chamber disposed of these
objections with a decision with reasons to follow. On 31 December 2015, the Supreme Court

Decision on Evidence Obtained through Torture, Public,S February 2016

2

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