E. This Convention shall not apply to a person who is recognized by the competent authorities of the
country in which he has taken residence as having the rights and obligations which are attached to the
possession of the nationality of that country.
F. The provisions of this Convention shall not apply to any person with respect to whom there are
serious reasons for considering that:
( a ) He has committed a crime against peace, a war crime, or a crime against humanity, as defined in
the international instruments drawn up to make provision in respect of such crimes;
( b ) He has committed a serious non-political crime outside the country of refuge prior to his
admission to that country as a refugee;
( c ) He has been guilty of acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
Article 2. - General obligations
Every refugee has duties to the country in which he finds himself, which require in particular that he
conform to its laws and regulations as well as to measures taken for the maintenance of public order.
Article 3. - Non-discrimination
The Contracting States shall apply the provisions of this Convention to refugees without discrimination
as to race, religion or country of origin.
Article 4. - Religion
The Contracting States shall accord to refugees within their territories treatment at least as favourable
as that accorded to their nationals with respect to freedom to practise their religion and freedom as
regards the religious education of their children.
Article 5. - Rights granted apart from this Convention
Nothing in this Convention shall be deemed to impair any rights and benefits granted by a Contracting
State to refugees apart from this Convention.
Article 6. - The term "in the same circumstances"
For the purposes of this Convention, the term "in the same circumstances" implies that any
requirements (including requirements as to length and conditions of sojourn or residence) which the
particular individual would have to fulfil for the enjoyment of the right in question, if he were not a
refugee, must be fulfilled by him, with the exception of requirements which by their nature a refugee is
incapable of fulfilling.
Article 7. - Exemption from reciprocity
1. Except where this Convention contains more favourable provisions, a Contracting State shall accord
to refugees the same treatment as is accorded to aliens generally.
2. After a period of three years' residence, all refugees shall enjoy exemption from legislative
reciprocity in the territory of the Contracting States.
3. Each Contracting State shall continue to accord to refugees the rights and benefits to which they
were already entitled, in the absence of reciprocity, at the date of entry into force of this Convention
for that State.
4. The Contracting States shall consider favourably the possibility of according to refugees, in the
absence of reciprocity, rights and benefits beyond those to which they are entitled according to