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(2) As a result of events occurring before 1 January 1951 and owing to well-founded fear of being
persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political
opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to
avail himself of the protection of that country; or who, not having a nationality and being outside the
country of his former habitual residence as a result of such events, is unable or, owing to such fear, is
unwilling to return to it.
In the case of a person who has more than one nationality, the term "the country of his nationality"
shall mean each of the countries of which he is a national, and a person shall not be deemed to be
lacking the protection of the country of his nationality if, without any valid reason based on wellfounded fear, he has not availed himself of the protection of one of the countries of which he is a
national.
B. (1) For the purposes of this Convention, the words "events occurring before 1 January 1951" in
article 1, section A, shall be understood to mean either ( a ) "events occurring in Europe before 1
January 1951"; or ( b ) "events occurring in Europe or elsewhere before 1 January 1951"; and each
Contracting State shall make a declaration at the time of signature, ratification or accession, specifying
which of these meanings it applies for the purpose of its obligations under this Convention.
(2) Any Contracting State which has adopted alternative ( a ) may at any time extend its obligations
by adopting alternative ( b ) by means of a notification addressed to the Secretary-General of the
United Nations.
C. This Convention shall cease to apply to any person falling under the terms of section A if:
(1) He has voluntarily re-availed himself of the protection of the country of his nationality; or
(2) Having lost his nationality, he has voluntarily reacquired it; or
(3) He has acquired a new nationality, and enjoys the protection of the country of his new nationality;
or
(4) He has voluntarily re-established himself in the country which he left or outside which he remained
owing to fear of persecution; or
(5) He can no longer, because the circumstances in connection with which he has been recognized as a
refugee have ceased to exist, continue to refuse to avail himself of the protection of the country of his
nationality;
Provided that this paragraph shall not apply to a refugee falling under section A (1) of this article who
is able to invoke compelling reasons arising out of previous persecution for refusing to avail himself of
the protection of the country of nationality;
(6) Being a person who has no nationality he is, because the circumstances in connection with which
he has been recognized as a refugee have ceased to exist, able to return to the country of his former
habitual residence;
Provided that this paragraph shall not apply to a refugee falling under section A (1) of this article who
is able to invoke compelling reasons arising out of previous persecution for refusing to return to the
country of his former habitual residence.
D. This Convention shall not apply to persons who are at present receiving from organs or agencies of
the United Nations other than the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees protection or
assistance.
When such protection or assistance has ceased for any reason, without the position of such persons
being definitively settled in accordance with the relevant resolutions adopted by the General Assembly
of the United Nations, these persons shall ipso facto be entitled to the benefits of this Convention.

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