TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................... 2
ABBREVIATIONS ................................................................................................................... 7
I. Introduction: How this Manual works .................................................................................... 8
Sources of Human Rights within the Manual ........................................................................ 8
II. The International Framework to Promote and Protect Human Rights: An Overview .......... 9
A.

The United Nations and the Birth of the Universal Human Rights System ................ 9

B.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) ............................................. 10

C.

The Human Rights Covenants................................................................................... 10

D.

Specific Issue Human Rights Treaties ...................................................................... 12

E.

Additional UN Mechanisms to Protect and Promote Human Rights ........................ 13

F. Regional Human Rights Instruments ............................................................................ 14
The Council of Europe ..................................................................................................... 14
Organisation of American States ..................................................................................... 17
The African Union ........................................................................................................... 19
Arab Charter on Human Rights ....................................................................................... 21
III. Fundamental Human Rights Principles ............................................................................. 22
A.

Sources of Human Rights.......................................................................................... 22
Customary International Law .......................................................................................... 22
Other sources of international law ................................................................................... 23

B.

The position of international human rights law in domestic law .............................. 24

C.

Human rights as the guarantor of human dignity ...................................................... 25

D.

Implementing Human Rights .................................................................................... 26
The requirement of legality.............................................................................................. 26
The Rule of Law .............................................................................................................. 27
The Right to an Effective Remedy................................................................................... 28
Retrospectivity ................................................................................................................. 31

IV. How Human Rights Work: General Application............................................................... 33
A.

“Practical and Effective” ........................................................................................... 33

B.

The nature of civil and political rights ...................................................................... 33
Limiting rights ................................................................................................................. 33
Qualified rights ................................................................................................................ 34

C.

Issues arising under the Civil and Political Rights .................................................... 37
Waiver of rights ............................................................................................................... 37
Negative and positive obligations .................................................................................... 38
Prohibition of the abuse of rights and duties and responsibilities ................................... 38
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Select target paragraph3